Saturday, September 20, 2014

Seamus Heaney Tribute Appreciation and Reflections




( Left to right)   Dan Tobin, Alex Green, Jean Houlihan, Michael Todd Steffen (back) Fred Marchant, Doug Holder




Seamus Heaney Tribute: Appreciation and Reflections

  By Alice Weiss

            On Wednesday the 27th of August, along, I attended a tribute to the Irish poet, Seamus Heaney, deceased one year.  It was organized and presented by Michael Todd Steffen at the Hastings room, First Church Cambridge. We were in a small yellow painted room. The furniture, pushed aside for folding chairs was plush and there were paintings on the walls in ornate frames, or at least that’s how I remember it. The podium was set in front of a mantel. The weather played a part. It rained and thundered.   I had not given much attention to Heaney’s poetry.  After this evening that changed.   The essay that follows reflects my memories of the evening and readings I did and thought about  in response to it.
            Presenters included two Irish-American poets, Joan Houlihan and Dan Tobin; the Jewish-American poet and cultural entrepreneur, Doug Holder; Back Pages in Waltham bookseller and publisher, Alex Green, and Fred Marchand, poet, war resister, and Suffolk University emeritus professor of poetry.  They all read and commented on a Heaney poem and, except for Alex Green, read work of their own.  Michael Todd Steffen made the introductions.
            Steffen began with a discussion of the Heaney’s poetry, took firmly into the high territory of great poetry, but there was one poem, title actually, that struck me especially, “Whatever You Say, Say Nothing.”  It’s slangy, calls up living in an occupied Ireland and, it catches some truth about the concentrated code we call poetry.  The poem, itself, is a bracing referential meditation (if so languorous a word can be applied to the tartness of its tone) on “the Irish thing’”and how people talk about it. Take the opening quatrains of section III, its disgust with a public language rendered powerless by its refusal to take sides and its burst into an impatience that nonetheless maintains a ‘tight gag.”
           
            ‘Religion’s never mentioned here,’ of course.
            ‘You know them by their eyes,’ and ‘hold your tongue.’
            ‘One side’s as bad as the other,’ never worse,
            Christ, it’s near time that some small leak was sprung

            In the great dykes the Dutchman made
            To dam the dangerous tide that following Seamus.
           
How do you talk through a mouth gag that makes you ignore history? some small leak? The poem apes  the language of the op-ed in such a way that it never leaves a question about where its heart is.  An unending dilemma hovers, though, in the poem, and finally breaks out in the last 
stanza: like Paul Celan, and Adrienne Rich, if he was going to sing he had to do it in the language of his oppressors.
           
            Ulster was British, but with no rights on
            the English lyric: all around us, though
            We hadn’t named it, the ministry of fear.


            Michael, introducing Doug Holder, admitted that he had intended to feature only Irish- American poets, but then, Doug.  Not a word else was needed.  If there was anymore said I didn’t hear it because I was laughing.  The room, I must add, was quite hot and someone handed out little personal fans.  They looked like the paddles art auction houses provide for bidders.  Doug, of course had his opportunity and thanked all the fans in the room.  People hissed, I called out “Sit down” Joan Houlihan laughed. 
            Doug read Heaney’s, “The Frontier of Writing,” and bumped us out of laughter back into that landscape of hostile occupation that was (is?) Northern Ireland.  Except here, the “tightness and the nilness,” that one attempting to cross a border (frontier) feels when stopped and inspected at gun point, has more to do with the hesitations and fears approaching the act of writing, subjugating that resistant part of your inner self to glide obediently past them,

                                                            out between
            the posted soldiers flowing and receding
            like tree shadows into the polished windscreen.

Whether internal or external trouble always looks like British soldiers.
            Doug’s poems too explored an inner/outer landscape.  His was Bickford’s, in “Eating grief at 3 A.M,” dedicated to Alan Ginsberg and evoking Walt Whitman at the supermarket old Marxists, flirting old ladies, a landscape, this time of loss leaving the poet with no place  to sit. In another of his poems “You know it is tough being a writer,” Holder managed to chime both Seamus Heaney and Henny Youngman: “The waiter /Charging me extra/ For the fly in /My soup.. . . And take my creative partner/Please.”  This swing between the world of Take-my-wife, and Northern Ireland seemed apt. It provided urban levity for all the rural seriousness you knew was coming.
                            Joan Houlihan read Seamus  Heaney’s “Miracle,” a poem drawn she told us from the New Testament where a man, unable to walk, was brought on a stretcher to Jesus to be healed.  The crowd was such that his friends could not get through with their stretcher and so climbed on the roof, pried off parts of it and lowered the man down.  Heaney’s poem, she explained, had its origin in the days when he had suffered a stroke and he was able to recover, but only help from the orderlies, the EMTS, the night nurses, in short, the hospital community. Her own son had had a brain injury, she added, and she knew what it was to depend on a caring community responding strangers. 
           
                Not the one who takes up his bed and walks
            But the ones who have known him all along
            And carry him in –

            Their shoulders numb, the ache and stoop deeplocked
            In their backs, the stretcher handles
            Slippery with sweat. And no let up

            Until he’s strapped on tight, made tiltable
            and raised to the tiled roof, then lowered for healing.
            Be mindful of them as they stand and wait

            For the burn of the paid out ropes to cool,
            Their slight lightheadedness and incredulity
            To pass, those who had known him all along.
             
            In the poems Joan read from her own work, a character suffering locked-in syndrome
survives with the help of “the ones who had known him all along.” Using the  strange feelingful language in “The Us,” and “The Ay,” her recent poetry of  wild almost celtic invention: an imaginary tribe, speaking an unexpected language her poems too invoke the bare, quiet human interaction of caring. 
           
            and brae would spoon the broth,
            and make talk between us
            where mine own had gone,
            as sounding saved by water,
            rivered in its mouth
            when saving ay had none
            and all mine days were silt
            and through the hand.

            “Sounding saved by water/ rivered in its mouth.”  I understand this with my physical center:  sounding (the capacity of make sounds)(but also water itself as in Long island sound, or measuring depths)  saved by water, and then back to language as river, incredible.  I find the same mystery in, for example, Heaney’s “Markings.”

                                    iii
                        All these things entered you
            As if they were both the door and what came through it.
            They marked the spot, marked time and held it open.
            A mower parted the bronze sea of corn.
            A windlass hauled the center out of water.
            Two men with a cross-cut kept it swimming
            Into a felled beech backwards and forwards
            So that they seemed to row the steady earth.

            It seemed to me that Daniel Tobin’s presentation also looked at ways Heaney explored the entering of things, “As if they were both the door and what came through it.”  Tobin read from his own study, Passage to the Center,  Imagination and the Sacred in the Poetry of Seamus Heaney.
            Heaney’s quest demands that he explore the process of self definition by tracing through his art the formative experiences that helped mold his identity.  . . .[It} entails a paradox in which the very outward movement of the quest calls for a radical inward scrutiny, an interrogation into the origins of the self.

            As if you could not separate that quest from the character of the man, Tobin spoke about his special capacity for encouragement.   Here is where Heaney’s exceptional capacity to locate the self in movement towards others illuminates the sources of poetry in ritual,   More than just a bunch of chants, ritual is a way for the self to merge with others.  In Station Island which I turned to in response to Tobin’s discussion, I found  poems which explore that “merging” in its most extreme form, as a mystical union with a landscape of “hard lodgings.”  So these last lines from “Sweeney’s Lament on  Ailsa Craig”                       

                        But to have ended up                            
                        lamenting here
                        on Ailsa Craig
                        A hard station!

                        Ailsa Craig,
                        the seagulls home,
                        God know it is
                        hard lodgings.

                        Ailsa Craig,
                        bell-shaped rock,
                        reaching sky high,
                        snout in the sea—

                        it hard-beaked,
                        me seasoned and scraggy:
                        We mated like a couple
                        of hard- shanked cranes.

            Picking up the exploration of ritual and community, Tobin read his own work, The Narrows, a ghazal, “A Mosque in Brooklyn,”  It takes place in the basement of the apartment house he grew up in.   The poem does a stunning turn with the word history,
           
            There is no prayer that can abolish history,
            though in this basement mosque the muezzin’s history

            gathers in his throat like a tenor’s aria
            and he calls to God to put an end to history. . .

            Allah, Allah—above the crowded rowhouse roofs.
            Their rusted antennas, stalled arrows of history. . .

            . . .these prayers are lifted on the thermals of history,

            and sound strangely like. . .
             the remnant who survived a blighted history,

            . . .lost themselves, flourishing into the One
            without division, without names, without history.

The ghazal form gives him an opportunity to endow the word history, also a concern of Heaney’s, with a repetitive force which ends up turning on the notion of history itself. The ritual takes the one step further, and by gathering in the throat of the muezzin puts an end to it, history.
                            As the last reader, Fred Marchand, went right to the point: the impact of reading Heaney on his own writing. He spoke of a time he felt that he could no longer hear the music in his own poems and had stumbled upon a poem by Heaney called “The Loose Box” and, it was implied, shook his deafness off.  I found it a long poem to listen to, but later read it from the New York Times Archives. It’s a poet’s poem. A “loose box” is a high horse stall that has four walls that horses are placed in so they can be held without harnesses.  The poem is in three parts.  The first lines of each section place the source of a particular diction the poet  has used throughout his career, then bursts into that very language to describe an imaginative encounter using it. It’s an ars poetica: Heaney openly exploring the sources of his own poetic language.  The sections of the poem seem disjointed , but the question is implicit in each of them:
           
            talk about the properties of land,
            the actual soil
            almost doesn’t matter; the main thing is
            an inner restitution, a purchase come by.
            By Pacing it in words that make you feel
            you’ve found your feet.. . .

or
            the threshing scene in Tess of the D’Urbervilles—
            That magnified my soul.
and also
           
            Michael Collins, ambushed. . .
            Has nothing to hold onto and falls again
            Willingly, lastly, foreknowledgeably deep
            Into the hay floor that gave once in his childhood
            . . .
            True or not, the fall within his fall,
            . . .lets him find his feet
            In an underworld of understanding
            Better than any newsreel lying-in-state. . .
            could ever manage to.
                         Or so it can stated
            in the must and drift of talk aabout the  loose box.

            I thought Fred Marchant must have found his own feet in that poem. He read a three part poem from his own  Looking Glass House, “The Custody of Eyes.” In it he, too, seemed to be finding his rhythm in meditating on three diverse sources: surrealist art, a surreal sculpture, a piece of extraordinary hagiography on St. Agnes and a visit to a sister in an asylum. My favorite section, “The Origins of the Practice,”  described the excruciating tormenting of St. Agnes, \ by the crowd of onlookers, soldiers.   The issue is  eyes that “are naturally unruly, straying without conscience,” A judge orders Agnes stripped before a crowd.  There is a miracle, except for the suitor, no one looks at her nakedness.

            What is so interesting about this poem is its evocation of concentration and the temptation to stray from it. Straying from the concentration is straying from precise individuation of the moment, the self, that is poetry.  And yet, that tension between attention and distraction is just the drama that gets played out over and over again, bringing us back to the “tightness and nilness,”the dangers and pleasure of “The Frontier of Writing.” Seamus Heaney.

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Church of the Adagio By Philip Dacey






Church of the Adagio
By Philip Dacey
Rain Mountain Press
New York City
ISBN: 13 978-0-9897051-4-1
95 Pages
$15.00

Review by Dennis Daly

I don’t know about you, but lately life’s gales seem to gust past me toward the thin-lipped, unforgiving horizon. I’m always looking for that bloody slow button. Philip Dacey offers relief by setting up his Church of the Adagio in the artificial spaces that creativity engenders. His poetic moments linger until they don’t. Time stops and starts as anticipation surges through the connecting nerves as you climb over the profane and the sacred stanzas, easing into and then merging with the lines. It’s damn reassuring. He makes it so.

In Llama Days, a serendipitous poem plotted out in formal verse, Dacey considers the many facets of wonder encompassed in a brief meeting of unintroduced species, a parsed parley, which changes the very nature of time twice: first, the convocation itself suspends the protagonist’s disbelief, and second, the poem, itself emerges out of artistic (read daydream) time. Here’s the moment of decision in the heart of the poem,

But llama? I’d never noticed one before,
though no doubt my surprise at seeing him
was matched by his at seeing me—or more
then matched, he being lost, freedom become

a burden twice as bad as any bars,
so much so panic struck and he turned back,
high-stepping it onto the road, two-laned, tarred,
and I saw the headline, “Llama killed by truck.”

Dropping the rake, I raced to rescue him,
Who now stood frozen, straddling the centerline…

Attempts at political poems crash and burn all the time. The more self-righteous the poet the better the chance of failure. True believers rarely produce first rate art. There are exceptions however. Dacey’s poem News of the Day, for instance, takes three historical examples of man’s inhumanity to man, cedes some freedom to formalist techniques, slowing down a river of natural anger, and creates three hardened jewel-like pieces. He sets his inspired words into two rondels and a sonnet. The Hiroshima rondel is beyond exceptional. The last stanza burns into you,

The room reshaped itself around me, night
disguised itself as day, and words, undone,
turned ash. Gone blind by ecstasy of sight,
my eyes read fire. When spines began to run,
I turned the page and fell into the sun.

Another curiosity in this book is the way Dacey moves almost seamlessly from formal poetry of the strictest type ( rondels, villanelles, sestinas)  into languid free verse and then back into formality. The relaxed prosy narrative of Dacey’s free verse poem White Trash lures you into an ongoing joke with very serious undertones. The poet opens his piece matter-of-factly,

When middle-class blacks
moved into my family’s neighborhood
in St. Louis in the Fifties
and we and all our neighbors
moved out, the property values
soared. Lawns greened, junkers
disappeared. I realize now
I was white trash.

Maybe I’m still white trash.
My parents never told me.
Did they know? Do they know now?
I like having a clear identity,
if not the one I’d have chosen for myself.
I’d long ago accepted the notion I was
gutter Irish…

My Allen Ginsberg Story, Dacey’s humorous poem of admiration, rocks one with fastidious details of stage props and prescribed paraphernalia. One doesn’t usually associate the word fastidious with Allen Ginsberg. And here lies the rub. Ginsberg apparently acted as a diva before readings with assorted ecentric demands. The myth of artistic spontaneity slows down and breaks into component parts in this piece. Ginsberg leaves nothing to chance when it comes to adding honey to his tea. The piece’s form, free verse lines, as Ginsberg might have written them, almost adds another layer of irony to the poem. Here are some lines from the heart of the composition,

Ginsberg saw me looking at the traffic jam
of paraphernalia and smiled. No doubt he knew
the effect of his phone call—beyond bizarre, honey
as an emergency. But now it seemed the act
of a consummate pro, perfectionist even, showman
not about to let an accident break a spell.
I thought of Whitman, whose “spontaneous me”
didn’t stop him from revising some poems for decades.
He’d agree that to place a honey jar and spoon
amidst that crush would ask for a disaster.
Still smiling, Ginsberg said, “You see what I mean.”

Leaping between the arts of dance and writing Dacey’s poem Nijinsky: A Sestina  describes both the medicinal and the madness inherent in the famous dancer’s life. It turns out that Nijinsky was also a talented diarist whose words soar as they detail ruin and degradation.  Dacey’s sestina in homage to Nijinsky is a short-lined poem with odd end words that Najinsky sputtered out nonsensically at one point in his life. But there is no nonsense in Dacey’s poem. The piece is a triumphant pas de deux between the poet and his subject.

One of this collections unusual pieces, The Cockroach Ball, skitters in with beautiful phrasing and organic unhesitant rhymes. Dacey uses the villanelle form here and it is lovely. Along with the obvious humor, the poet expresses his rather wondrous sensitivities. The poem works! Cockroach love in the midst of poverty—who would have thought it possible?

My advice: worship at Dacey’s Church of the Adagio for the very best in contemporary poetry. And do it as soon as possible.


****** originally appeared in the Fox Chase Review.

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Dylan Thomas and the Poets’ Theatre Come Alive reading Under Milk Wood at the Sanders Theatre





Dylan Thomas



Dylan Thomas and the Poets’ Theatre Come Alive
reading Under Milk Wood at the Sanders Theatre

article by Michael Todd Steffen


By itself on the page Dylan Thomas’s Under Milk Wood, a Play for Voices, poses difficulties for the reader. There is no central character. In fact, within 86 pages of text 69 different characters appear, or rather they speak. One is apt to think of James Joyce’s Ulysses with its proliferation of characters and names, yet here without the main characters of Stephan Dedalus and Leopold Bloom to keep re-orienting the reader from the subconscious rivers of language that the Modernist style hazards into.

The scenes in Under Milk Wood are brief and their transitions made by different narrative voices. You need as a reader the idea of the time’s (1950s New York) enthusiasm for bustle in radio comedy to begin to get a sense of how the play is to be heard. Then, as many among the audience at the Sanders Theatre performance last evening, Sunday September 14, were heard saying, the Thomas play brings to mind Thornton Wilder’s Our Town. It dawned on me at some moment during the performance that Under Milk Wood may well have had some influence on Garrison Keilor’s Lake Woebegone world for Prairie Home Companion.

Because of its Welsh-Gaelic origins and its American destination (radio broadcast from New York), Under Milk Wood exhibits an easy union of European and American influences, not unlike Eliot’s
‘The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock’ (which will soon celebrate its 100-year anniversary in publication).

As Bob Scanlan, the President and Artistic Director of the newly revived Poets’ Theatre notes in the leaflet to last evening’s production, “Under Milk Wood was first sounded, by Thomas himself, here in Cambridge under the auspices of the Poets’ Theatre. That legendary performance at the Fogg Art Museum was the first (and still unrivaled) great achievement of the idea of a “poets’ theatre.”

Last night’s performance was dedicated “to a rebirth of that spirit.” And the dedication was fulfilled brilliantly by the fourteen readers juggling the character parts and delivering their lines with wonderful timing to a lot of fun and laughter, the play favoring movement to motive, language to things, the humor of exaggerated depravity and squalor to relieve and bring home the ordinary goodness of the villagers’ lives and dispositions.

We are in “a Play of Voices,” of language in reminiscence rather than representation of acts and things. This is underscored in MR BENYON’s jokingly dour menu for the week with MRS BENYON and LILY SMALLS:

[cat purrs]

MRS BENYON
She likes the liver, Ben.

MR BENYON
She ought to, Bess. It’s her brother’s.
MRS BENYON (Screaming)
Did you hear that, Lily?

LILY SMALLS
Yes, mum.

MRS BENYON
We’re eating pusscat.

LILY SMALLS
Yes, mum.

MRS BENYON
Oh, you cat-butcher!

MR BENYON
It was doctored, mind.

MRS BENYON (Hysterical)
What’s that got to do with it?

MR BENYON
Yesterday we had mole.

MRS BENYON
Oh Lily, Lily!

MR BENYON
Monday, otter. Tuesday, shrews.

Mrs. Benyon screams.

LILY SMALLS
Go on, Mrs. Benyon. He’s the biggest liar in town…


Under Milk Wood involves the living and the dead, and the line between them is fluid and confused, while here and there a clock tick-tocks and a bell chimes to remind us that time is passing and that the fret and joy of these lives in their dreams happen for a time and then are gone, lending the otherwise lightly shuffled comedy a curious and resonant depth, easily recognizable to our lives.

As an artistic and perhaps philosophical transition, Under Milk Wood represented Dylan Thomas’s vision of transcending the personal voice of lyrical poetry to the interplay of different character voices—almost to drama. But Thomas’s “Play of Voices” doesn’t develop a plot to emerge fully into drama, retaining the charm and caprice of the lyrical voice as it is dispersed throughout its many characters. Due to this structural dislocation, and because of the many characters that emerge, it was difficult to distinguish individual performances among the 14 readers in the production at the Sanders Theatre last evening. Their huge success was in retaining their shadows of anonymity while juggling their parts and delivering their lines to the enthusiastic attention and pleasure of the audience. It pains me not to be able to say something specific about each of the readers, while I must say that Karen McDonald shone in her renditions of Polly Garter’s songs, Laurence Selenick in his role as Reverend Eli Jenkins and rendition of Mr. Waldo’s song, and Alvin Epstein for his spirited performance of Captain Cat and the tick-tocking clock. Their equals in every way reading on the stage were: Erica Funkhouser, Amanda Gann, Cherry Jones, Benjamin Evett, Lloyd Schwartz, Fred Marchant, Thomas Derrah, David Gullette, Will Lebow, Christopher Lydon and Aidan Parkinson.


The troupe worked the miracle that Dylan Thomas himself had created 61 years ago, as Bob Scanlan describes it, with his “performative skills [to bring] new life and insight into a poetry trapped and petrified on the page.” With this as its mission, looking forward to further productions, the Poets’ Theatre has undertaken a noble and appreciable purpose.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

What’s Next in Poetry? –a discussion about the future of poetry--Grolier Poetry Book Shop









What’s Next in Poetry? –a discussion about the future of poetry, hosted by the Grolier Poetry Bookshop on Friday September 13, with guests Adam Kirsch, Philip Nikolayev, and Marjorie Perloff.

article by Michael Todd Steffen


Marjorie Perloff, retired Florence Scott Professor of English Emerita at the University of Southern California, widely known for her writing on experimental and avant-garde poetry.

Adam Kirsch, senior editor of The New Republic and a contributing editor to Harvard Magazine,
has been described by John Palattella as “the offspring of the New Formalists.”

Philip Nikolayev, editor of Fulcrum, an Annual of Poetry and Esthetics, which has included the poetry of Paul Muldoon, John Kinsella, Billy Collins and many others.

Maybe the main point about an unrecorded meet-up in an intimate, iconic space like the Grolier is being there, and the wisest thing to comment about it: You’d have to be there… The event was spirited and to the day, and with renowned critic Marjorie Perloff, as well as her co-panelists Adam Kirsch and Philip Nikolayev, the evening generated vital ideas on the topic, What’s Next? What’s upcoming, what does the future hold for poetry?

Some of the main ideas discussed by the panelists included: How poets evolve from different traditions in poetry to new voices; how our technical-visual-image oriented culture posed a different challenge to poets than the book-word oriented culture of the past before television, movies, pcs, iphones…; what has come to be the standard anecdotal poem prevalently turned out by MFA writing programs and published in the major poetry journals; and the terrible difficulty of discerning which poets among the virtual sea of new emerging poets each year would survive.

On that last topic, Marjorie Perloff noted that while it’s easy for most commentators and anthologists to agree who the major Modernist poets are, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, Marianne Moore, Elizabeth Bishop, agreement on the great voices of the ensuing generation (the “models” for today’s poets) has been more elusive, while names like John Ashbury, Frank O’Hara, James Merrill, Robert Duncan, Derek Walcott and Mary Oliver were brought up. The notion of a central tradition for poetry in the English language such as the one Eliot established, beaming back through Tennyson, the Romantics, Pope, Milton and Shakespeare, has given way to a new stable of potential poets from university programs, most of whom are not even familiar with Theodore Roethke.

So far, all is well. A grim outlook, with much to complain about, despair of: these have forever only nourished poets and their rankling, poetry.

Adam Kirsch notably observed that writing and reading poetry in our time has been affected by the consumerist tendencies of the culture. We go through more poetry (that is less carefully written), we go through it faster, and the poems seem to mean less, they are shelved in schools for packaging rather than for contention, scrutiny, debate, genuine dialogue, where wide acceptance of origin is the rule.

Some of the highlight points made by Philip Nikolayev, after much meandering consideration, paradoxically yet convincingly in the broad allowance of the discussion were that there remained a nobility to the expression of true poetry, a challenge of betterment to the self. At the end of the day among those in the practice of the art, Nikolayev offered, there were “poets and non-poets,” which drew many silent nods of acquiescence around the closely felt space in the historic book shop.

Marjorie Perloff engaged the audience in a more specific, animated, and I think very timely talk about Frank O’Hara’s book Lunch Poems upon the 50th anniversary of that book’s publication in 1964 by San Francisco’s City Lights Books. Perloff gave extended attention to O’Hara’s 17-line composition “Poem” (“Lana Turner has collapsed”), significantly pointing out the very human—“trotting”, rushing to meet somebody, weather conscious, fallible “I have been to a lot of parties/and acted perfectly disgraceful”—elements of O’Hara’s language (vernacular) compared to the remote, very technically neutral and uncompromising voice that dominates poetry in the journals being published today. Perloff’s tribute to O’Hara ramified to comments about conceptual poets, using others’ texts in original arrangements, with a fairly direct critique about how censored and cautious today’s poets seem compared to O’Hara and on back to Cummings, Pound and Eliot, the poets who were ready and able to scope out the challenge of their societies’ ponderous expectations of language and to overthrow those expectations necessarily to emerge as new meaningful voices. This doesn’t seem to be happening today, whether due to its failure by the poet at the page or by editors unwilling to take risks beyond current standards.

One of the hopes offered in the course of the evening, I thought—and no two accounts of this discussion could possibly be the same—was Kirsch’s observation that while new scientific (and technological) breakthroughs supplanted and to an extent obsolesced those of their predecessors, the cycles of human experience, witnessed especially by poetry, in the songs of words and their arrangements, although successive and changing, were renewably meaningful. We still read Homer and Sappho and find much insight, inspiration and pleasure that cannot be substituted by reading, say, Robert Pinsky and Louis Gluck, wonderful and plentiful as their poetry is. The mark of great poets is indelible. Pertinently and plainly, Nikolayev reiterated that the viable poet of today heading for tomorrow had to be “steeped in poetry,” a nearly amorphous vast reservoir of the past constantly attracting addition and alteration.

I think everybody present would want to join me in thanking the guests for their very considerate thoughts, and to thank Ifeanyi Menkiti, his wife Carol and Elizabeth Doran for organizing the event

at the Grolier, “the oldest continuously run bookshop in the country.”